Laparoscopic Surgery – What is it?

Laparoscopic surgery is a form of minimally invasive surgery in which small incisions are used instead of the big incisions as in an open surgery. This surgical procedure uses a long thin camera known as a laparoscope to diagnose and treat a variety of illnesses and disorders of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis. A laparoscope sends images from inside of your body to a monitor where the surgeon can see them.

Laparoscopic surgery is generally used when non-invasive techniques and imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, MRI scan fail to aid in the diagnosis.

This procedure is recommended to treat conditions such as abdominal pain, endocrine conditions, female reproductive system disorders, intestinal conditions, hernia, urinary tract conditions, lung conditions, liver and gallbladder ailments, stomach and oesophagus conditions and vascular conditions.

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Laparoscopic surgery is considered to be the gold standard for many treatments due to the following benefits:

  • It creates smaller scars
  • The hospital stay is shorter
  • It aids in quicker recovery
  • It causes lesser pain

While laparoscopic surgery has various benefits, it also has certain risks like any other surgery which are as follows:

  • Bleeding
  • Infection
  • Damage to the abdomen organs
  • Redness, swelling, bleeding or drainage at the sites of incision
  • Continuous nausea or vomiting
  • Continuous cough
  • Shortness of breath
  • Inability to urinate
  • Light-headedness
  • Fever and chills
  • Intense abdominal pain
Laparoscopic surgery

What happens in Laparoscopic Surgery?

Before you go for laparoscopic surgery, it is recommended that you clear any queries that you have about your laparoscopic surgery’s recovery, level of pain, etc. with your laparoscopic surgeon.

Laparoscopic surgery

As far as the recovery after laparoscopic surgery is concerned, you will be kept in the recovery room until your vital signs are stable. The duration varies, but it usually lasts an hour or two. In most cases, you will be sent home on the same day. A hospital stay may be necessary for more complex operations.

The full recovery, however, takes time. The length of your recovery depends on the surgery, the type of anaesthetic used, your overall health, your age, and other factors. You can return to your routine work within a day or two after simple operations. You should nevertheless try to avoid activities such as heavy lifting, intense exercise, and contact sports for some time or as prescribed by your doctor.

Talking about pain control is also critical here for healing and a speedy recovery. You will experience some pain after your surgery but if your discomfort changes or becomes too intense, you should contact your surgeon right away since it might be a sign of some complication.

Also if you’re using narcotic pain relievers, you may feel sleepy. If you feel nauseous, inform about it to your doctor so that it can be addressed.

Lastly, it is very important to know when to call your surgeon. Although you will have routine check-ups after your laparoscopic surgery, you should call your doctor right away if you experience bleeding, shortness of breath, chest discomfort, severe sore throat, inability to urinate/have bowel movement, unexpected drainage from incision or experience other such signs that you feel are unusual. 

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Importance of door to needle time

In the treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke (AIS), Intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) is a common form of treatment. The sooner IVT is started, the better are the chances of a successful outcome. As a result, recording the in-hospital time to IVT treatment, also known as the door-to-needle time (DNT), is an effective approach to track quality improvement. 

In other words, Door to Needle (DTN) time is the period between when a stroke patient arrives in the emergency room to when recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) pharmacological treatment is started.

1. Importance of Door to Needle Time
2. Reasons for delay in Door to Needle Time
3. Practices that can reduce Door to Needle Time
4. Conclusion

Importance of Door to Needle Time

Stroke is the world’s fourth greatest cause of death and the top cause of disability and suffering in the world. The majority of ischemic strokes are caused by thromboembolic or atheromatous processes occluding blood vessels. For individuals with AIS, IVT using recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) is a well-established treatment option.

IVT improves the chances of self-sufficiency. As already mentioned, the earlier the therapy begins, the better are the chances of a successful outcome. The DTN time has become even more critical since the advent of the “Time is Brain” idea, which says that each minute a stroke goes untreated, 1.9 million neurons and 14 billion synapses die.

In AIS, DTN time to therapy has been shown to be a significant predictor of 90-day and 1-year functional results. The door to needle time (DNT) to when IVT is initiated can be used to assess the quality of acute stroke care given by each institution.

According to a research study, there was a 5% reduction in risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality for every 15-minute reduction in door-to-needle times. If the IVT is administered within 90 min after the onset of symptoms, the number needed to treat (NNT) is 4.5 which is increased to an NNT of 9 between 91 and 180 min. It has been demonstrated in various studies that DTN times of 60 minutes or less than 60 minutes can be consistently achieved which can be worked upon.

Reasons for delay in Door to Needle Time

The DTN time is delayed for a variety of reasons, including patient-related factors like uncertainty about symptom onset, unknown medical history, uncontrolled blood pressure or sugars, uncertainty about anticoagulation status, fluctuating neuro deficit, and in-hospital factors like incorrect triage, insufficient emergency room staff or untrained staff in stroke recognition, and difficulty with in-hospital transfers, which is why it is important to approach a trusted hospital.

Practices that can reduce Door to Needle Time

There are a few practices that can reduce DTN time which are given below:

  • Advance notification to a stroke-equipped hospital’s emergency room
  • Rapid triage protocol and notification of the stroke team
  • Single call activation system for the entire stroke team
  • Stroke toolkit
  • Rapid brain imaging
  • Rapid laboratory testing
  • Rapid access to rt-PA drug
  • Mixing rt-PA medication ahead of time for likely cases
  • Well-prepared team-based approach
  • Prompt data feedback

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A basic level of awareness about stroke symptoms should be established in the community, such as using the simple “FAST” (Face, Arm, Speech, Time) method to detect the warning signs of stroke and immediately transferring the patient to a nearby stroke-ready hospital, establishing well-organized and tested acute stroke protocols in hospital emergency rooms, and training medical and paramedical staff to reduce Door to Needle Time.

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Is it safe to go to hospital during covid time for general checkup in Chandigarh

Should you go to the hospital if you have a medical problem that isn’t caused by the coronavirus? Given that the pandemic is still ongoing, with cases reported from all around the country, this is a genuine concern. However, in the present scenario, a growing number of hospitals have begun to welcome non-covid patients with all safety measures and covid protocols. 

While these activities are gradually returning to normalcy, it is natural to be concerned about whether it is safe to go to the hospital during the covid time for a general check-up. 

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To answer the question, it is safe to visit hospitals for a general check-up that observe the following safety and security measures:

  1. Separate area for treating Covid-19 patients: Hospitals are increasingly making provisions for separate waiting areas for Covid-19 patients.

Along with this, measures are taken to call the patients just moments before their appointment for the least risk of exposure. Healthy patients are mostly asked to wait outside or in their cars until their exact time of appointment.

  1. Added attention to hygiene and disinfection: Along with all the regular cleaning and disinfection methods, hospitals now use cleaning procedures that are proven to destroy the COVID-19 virus. 

Sanitisers are also kept at every corner so that they are in everyone’s reach to ensure proper hygiene and safety.

  1. Measures for easing social distancing: Many hospitals have changed the layout of their waiting rooms and lobbies to facilitate social distancing.  Using new layouts and helpful signs make it easier to know where and when to go. 
  1. No entry without masks: All patients, family members, and visitors are asked to wear a mask or face covering while in the hospital to prevent the spread of COVID-19. At the entrance, the screening personnel hands masks to anyone without a mask or wearing an ineffective one.
  1. Temperature check at the entrance: Although there are a variety of symptoms of COVID-19, the majority of positive cases possess a fever

Associates, vendors, doctors, staff and all visitors entering the hospital premises are checked for temperature every time they want to get in the building. This exercise helps in keeping the premises of the hospital safe and infection-free. 

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What can you do to stay safe?

  1. Consider video consultation: In this age of technology, patients can now visit their doctors without stepping a foot into the hospital. Nowadays, many doctors are increasing the availability of online appointments.  So, if you have a scheduled health appointment that you don’t want to miss, see if you can do it online. 
  1. Take safety measures when in hospital: Even though most hospitals are following all covid protocols, there is no harm in taking precautions from your side. So in cases when you cannot avoid going to the hospital, make sure to follow the following safety measures:
  • Try to get vaccinated against Covid-19 before your appointment.
  • Keep a safe space (at least 6 feet) between yourself and others.
  • Put on a mask.
  • Wash your hands with soap for at least 20 seconds, if possible.
  • When you can’t wash your hands, use a hand sanitiser.
  • Keep your hands off your face.
  • Try not to touch surfaces.
  • To clean areas that you do need to touch, use disinfectant wipes.

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Your well-being is crucial. It’s crucial to receive the proper diagnosis or treatment if anything is troubling you. Putting off medical treatment might lead to difficulties later on or make recovery more difficult. So you can either book an online consultation or walk in a covid-19 safe hospital in Chandigarh

Take care, stay safe!

How to Live Longer With Heart Failure

A diagnosis of heart failure does not imply that the heart has stopped beating. Heart failure is a condition in which the blood flow from the heart decreases, producing a decline in blood flow throughout the body and causing congestion in the body’s tissues. This congestion can result in swelling in the ankles, legs or stomach, as well as fluid in the lungs, which can make breathing difficult.

Although heart failure can be caused by unknown factors, some of the major causes of heart failure are cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease (CAD), hypertension, valvular heart disease and other temporary and treatable conditions such as thyroid, obesity, pregnancy, arrhythmias, etc.

Although the life expectancy of congestive heart failure patients varies based on the severity of the disease and factors such as heredity, age, etc., advancements in technology and treatment choices have now enabled many people to live longer.

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To understand how to live longer with heart failure, you need to first know the important signs and symptoms to monitor each stage of heart failure, change your lifestyle a little and take your medications and therapies on time.

Contents:Stages of Heart FailureHow to live longer with heart failure?

Stages of Heart Failure

Heart failure is a chronic, long-term heart health problem that can worsen over time. Therefore, the sooner you start making lifestyle adjustments to treat your disease, the higher are your chances of living longer. Below mentioned are the four stages of heart failure along with the measures that you should take to stay healthy.

Stage A

Stage A is often referred to as “pre–heart failure.” This stage means that the patient is at risk of developing heart failure due to conditions such as diabetes, high blood pressure, early CAD, or a family history of cardiomyopathy.

This is the right stage to start thinking about changing your diet, controlling your salt intake, lowering alcohol consumption, doing an appropriate amount of exercise to stay fit, and taking your medications on time.

Stage B

This is a critical juncture in the development of heart failure. Stage B implies that your heart has already undergone certain alterations that might lead to heart failure. Patients at this stage are more likely to have had a heart attack or some other type of heart disease. Along with doing everything that is to be done in Stage A, surgery or intervention may also be required.

Stage C

This is the stage when the patient is diagnosed with heart failure and is experiencing symptoms such as shortness of breath, difficulty in exercising, waking up short of breath after lying down, and swelling in the legs and feet.

Patients at this stage can live a longer life if they are put on proper drug regimes. Cardiac rehabilitation can also assist patients with stage C heart failure.

Stage D

Stage D is the most advanced stage of heart failure. These are the patients who may need a heart transplant, mechanical heart pump or other such critical treatments. Patients at this stage of heart failure should regularly consult a heart specialist in Chandigarh to identify the best treatment for them.

In every appointment with the cardiologist, the patients and their family members should ask as many questions as possible to know what changes they need to bring in their lifestyle and to open up the best treatment choices for them.

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How to live longer with heart failure?

There are indeed a set of changes that you need to bring in your lifestyle if you are diagnosed with heart failure, but this does not mean that you stop living altogether. Try to take out time for the activities that you enjoy, along with doing what is right for your heart.

Lifestyle changes that can delay the course of heart failure are as follows:

  • Exercise for at least 30 minutes five days a week. Avoid doing exercises that make you breathless.
  • Control high blood pressure
  • Quit smoking
  • Reduce your consumption of alcohol
  • Manage stress and recognize if you have depression or anxiety
  • Get adequate rest
  • Conserve your energy
  • Take your medicines exactly as directed by your doctor
  • Follow a low sodium diet
  • Consult your cardiologist regularly

The Covid-19 Vaccines for Kids: what parents should know

After a spike in adolescent hospitalization in the second wave in India, parents, as well as the government, are concerned about what effect COVID-19 may have on the children in the third wave.

Many vaccines are undergoing clinical testing in India, including Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine, AstraZeneca, Moderna, and others. These vaccinations have also been tested on children under the age of 18. Some of the COVID-19 vaccinations for children have shown 100% efficacy. 

In India, the Covid-19 vaccine is in its third trial phase for children. Vaccines such as Covaxin and Zycov-D (Zydus Cadila) are among the top priorities of the Indian government and are being tested on youngsters aged 12 to 18 in particular.

Here is all parents need to know about COVID-19 vaccines for their children:

Q. Are COVID-19 vaccinations advised for children?

A. COVID-19 vaccinations are effective. There can be some side effects, but they are generally minimal and only last for a short time. Although parents’ concern for their children is completely understandable, the government and the doctors are optimistic about the vaccination. With the third wave on the brink, now is the perfect time to get started on the vaccination and they are expected to roll out soon.

Q. What are the side effects of the COVID-19 vaccine on children?

A. Pain in the arm, fatigue for a day or two and a mild fever are all common side effects of the COVID-19 vaccine. Allergic reactions are uncommon, although they can happen with any drug or vaccination, and not only the COVID-19 vaccines. At the same time, it must be remembered that an adverse effect of the COVID-19 illness is far more likely than a terrible reaction to the vaccination.

Q. What are the chances of a child becoming infected with the COVID-19 virus?

A. Though the numbers of children with severe infection are small when compared to adults in India, it is a myth that children who contract COVID-19 do not become ill.

Recent numbers show that more teens are becoming ill from the infection. And although it cannot be said with certainty, the trend of the COVID-19 waves shows that the third wave might affect children as well. 

In the recent past, even when children have done well with the infection, there have been cases of a rare post-infection inflammatory syndrome called multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children or MISC that can make them very sick. Symptoms of MISC can include fever, difficulty in breathing, rash, chest pain or pressure, confusion, inability to stay awake and abdominal pain.

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Q. Are there any children who shouldn’t get vaccinated?

A. Any kid who has previously had an adverse reaction to a vaccination or is allergic to any of the components in the approved vaccines should consult with their doctors before choosing if the vaccine is safe for them. For children who have underlying health conditions, vaccinations should not be avoided. In fact, they are at more risk of contracting COVID-19 and so vaccination becomes all the more important for them.

Q. When will the vaccines be approved for children younger than 12?

A. India’s health ministry recently stated that numerous vaccines for children in India are now being tested. Children in India aged 12-18 account for around 5-6 crore of the population, which is a significant number. And when it comes to kids especially, vaccination cannot be introduced without doing final tests.

In India, the government will decide on a specific approach to developing the Covid-19 vaccine for children. Nonetheless, the efficacy results of most vaccination studies are optimistic.

Q. How to prepare children for getting vaccinated?

A. Every child is unique when it comes to vaccination preparation. Some children are fine with it, while others are terrified of needles. If you have an anxious child, don’t tell them weeks in advance, but don’t surprise them with it either. Just don’t allow them too much time to worry or be concerned.

For some children, knowing exactly what will happen at each stage is beneficial. Describe the procedure to them. Also, be honest with your children: tell them that they will feel a pinch at first, but that it will end soon.

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