Recurrent Pregnancy Loss- What Do You Need to Know?

A number of women experience a miscarriage at some point in their lives. Miscarriages can occur due to a variety of factors. A clinically recognised pregnancy that ends involuntarily before 20 weeks is referred to as a pregnancy loss. The happening of two or more such consecutive miscarriages is termed as a recurrent pregnancy loss

Here is all you need to know about causes, tests and treatment for recurrent pregnancy loss in Chandigarh.


Contents:
Causes of Recurrent Pregnancy Loss
Tests for Recurrent Pregnancy Loss
Treatment of Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

Causes of Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

The majority of pregnancy losses are caused by chromosomal defects or genetic defects. Problems might be caused by the egg, sperm, or early embryo. Major causes of recurrent pregnancy loss in women are as follows:

  • Increasing maternal age: Increasing maternal age is linked to a higher chance of miscarriage, which is mostly caused by low egg quality, leading to chromosomal abnormalities. 
  • Abnormality in the uterus: Miscarriages can also be caused by an abnormality in the uterus (womb). The miscarriage may be caused by a lack of blood flow to the foetus or inflammation.
  • Weak immune system: Recurrent pregnancy loss may also be caused by a woman’s weak immune system. Thyroid disorders and diabetes, for example, can cause hormonal imbalances that can lead to pregnancy loss. It can also be caused by abnormalities in a mother’s blood clotting.

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Tests for Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

To find out the cause behind recurrent pregnancy loss, your gynaecologist may first inquire about your medical history and previous pregnancies. He/she may perform a full physical examination, including a pelvic examination. 

Blood tests may be performed to diagnose immune system issues. To determine if a uterine condition is causing miscarriages, imaging studies may be used.

An ultrasound is typically used as an initial test. The ultrasound can reveal the shape of the uterus as well as the existence of fibroids (benign round muscle tumours).

A doctor can also perform hormone function testsThyroid function tests may be performed to check the thyroid antibodies and prolactin, the hormone responsible for breast milk production. 

If a woman is at risk for diabetes or exhibits symptoms of diabetes, she may be tested for diabetes as well.

Karyotype analysis for both spouses is another type of test that may be done. The karyotype is a person’s chromosomal or genetic make-up. The goal is to look for disorders in the parents that might be passed down to the offspring and cause miscarriage. Because karyotype abnormalities are uncommon, a doctor may decide to skip this test until other more prevalent abnormalities have been ruled out.

Treatment of Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

If you’ve had two or more miscarriages, it is important to speak with your gynaecologist. Many women choose to continue trying to conceive naturally but in some cases, the doctor may recommend therapies to help lower the chances of miscarriage.

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  1. Blood-thinning medicines: Blood-thinning medications can be used to reduce the chance of miscarriage. Such drugs, however, should only be used with the advice of a healthcare expert since they raise the risk of significant bleeding issues.
  1. Lifestyle changes: Whatever is good for a woman’s health is good for a healthy pregnancy as well. Quitting smoking and abstaining from illegal drugs (such as cocaine) reduces the chance of miscarriage. Limiting the intake of alcohol and caffeine can also help.

Along with this, being overweight has also been related to an increased chance of miscarriage. Thus maintaining a healthy weight can aid with pregnancy outcomes. Stress management can also reduce the chance of having a pregnancy loss.

  1. Treating other medical problems: Recurrent pregnancy loss might be linked to a variety of medical issues. Excessive amounts of the hormone prolactin, irregular blood sugar levels, diabetes, thyroid dysfunction, etc. can be treated to increase the odds of a healthy full-term pregnancy.
  1. Genetic screening: If one of the parents has a translocation, this might result in chromosomal imbalances in the foetus, making a miscarriage more likely. The blood of the parents can be tested to check if they have a translocation. 

If a chromosomal issue is discovered, the doctor may provide genetic counselling. While many couples with translocations can conceive a healthy pregnancy on their own, your doctor may also recommend reproductive procedures like IVF.

  1. Surgery: Surgery can fix concerns such as scar tissues, problems in the uterus and certain fibroids. Correcting the form of the uterus on the inside can significantly reduce the risk of miscarriage. 

To repair the interior of the uterus, the surgeon utilises an instrument with a camera (hysteroscope) that is passed through the vagina. This is normally a one-day operation with a few days of recovery time.